The Xoloitzcuintle or Xoloitzcuintli, known in Italy as Mexican hairless dog, is a very ancient breed, the first traces date back to 3,500 years ago in North and Central America. Ceramic statues depicting Xolo have been found in the tombs of Colima in Mexico. Now let's go to deepen the history of this breed; the Xoloitzcuintle was the favorite dog of the Aztec civilization, in fact Xolotl was the god of lightning and the one who helped the dead on their journey to Mictlan, the underworld; Instead "itzcuintli" was the Aztec word for dog. For the Aztecs, the Xolo was the page of the dead, a faithful life partner of the master who was sacrificed at the latter's death to accompany him on his journey to the underworld. Unfortunate was the fate of these Xolo who were sacrificed for pagan rituals or buried alive in the master's tomb. The Xolo were proud companions in life, used by the Aztecs as catalysts for disease; in fact the legend has it that after 4 days that the patient slept with the Xolo the illness and the pains were transferred to the dog; actually Xolo has a much higher body temperature than other dogs and us humans and thanks to this it helped to treat rheumatism, cervical colic and arthritis. The Xolos have also entered the hearts of famous Mexican painters including Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera who have dedicated various canvases to this wonderful breed.
FCI Standard N° 234 / 16.02.2011Official Standard of the Xoloitzcuintli General Appearance: The Xolo is an ancient, natural breed, molded by evolution rather than selective breeding. A Xolo is moderate in all aspects of type and conformation, never extreme or overdone. Today the breed serves as a guard and companion. The Xolo possesses a clean, graceful outline, equally combining elegance and strength. There are two varieties, hairless and coated, identical except for coat and dentition. In the hairless variety, the principal characteristic is the total or almost total absence of hair. The coated variety is covered by a short, flat coat. In conformation, all three sizes are lean, sturdy, well muscled with a spacious ribcage, and moderate bone. The Xolo outline is rectangular, and the distance from the elbow to ground is equal to, or slightly greater than, the distance from the withers to the elbow. Typical Xolo temperament is calm, tranquil, aloof and attentive. Size, Proportion, Substance: Height is measured at the highest point of the withers. Toy - Height at withers at least 10, and up to and including 14 inches. Miniature - Height at withers over 14 inches, and up to and including 18 inches. Standard - Height at withers over 18 inches, and up to and including 23 inches. Dogs less than 10 inches, or over 24 inches are disqualified. The body is slightly longer than height, in a 9/10 ratio measured from the point of the shoulder blade to the end of the rump. Medium, oval shaped bone is desirable. All three sizes exhibit moderately balanced proportions, and appear strong, sturdy, and well covered with smooth, flat muscle, but never coarse, heavy or over-muscled. Head: Expression - Thoughtful and intelligent, vivacious, conveying the noble and faithful character of the breed, will show distinctive brow wrinkles when at attention. Eyes are almond shaped, medium size, neither sunken nor protruding. The color varies from yellow to black, the darker being preferred, but lighter color is acceptable. Both eyes must be of the same color. The eye rims may be less pigmented on light colored dogs. Light or spotted eye rims are tolerated but not preferred. Ears - Large, elegant and expressive, a thin delicate texture, tapering to a rounded tip. Ears are set high and carried strongly erect when alert. Ears not standing erect by one year of age are a fault. The Xolo should never exhibit ear fringe. Cropping is prohibited. Skull is wedge shaped, when seen from above, wide and strong, gradually tapering to the muzzle. Excessively wide or narrow heads are a fault. Skull and muzzle planes are parallel. Stop is not pronounced. Muzzle is longer than skull, straight when viewed in profile. The lower jaw is strong and well developed, free from throatiness. Nose is dark on dark colored dogs, lighter on light colored dogs. Lips are thin and tight. Bite - Scissors bite. In the hairless variety, the absence of premolars is acceptable. Complete set of incisors preferred but lack thereof is not to be penalized. In the coated variety, complete dentition is required. Neck, Topline, Body: Neck is long, elegant, slightly arched, blending smoothly into the shoulders. In dogs less than one year of age, wrinkled skin may be present. In adults, the skin on the neck is smooth and dry, without wrinkles. Topline is level with slight arch over loin. Body is well developed. The brisket should reach to point of elbow. The ribcage is deep and oval, of good length, with sufficient ribspring to produce a rounded shape, but never barrel shaped. The loin is muscular, with a smooth underline showing a slight tuck up. Back is level and firm. Croup is well muscled, slightly rounded, and broad. It should not be flat or steeply angled. Tail is set low, continuing smoothly off the angle of the croup, long and fine, reaching to the hock. When the dog is moving, the tail is carried in a graceful curve, but not over the back. It is held down in a relaxed position when the dog is at rest. A short or curled tail is a serious fault. Page 2 of 2 Forequarters: Shoulders are covered with smooth muscle, long and sloping. Shoulder blades are flat and well laid back. Upper Arm (humerus) is equal or slightly longer than scapula, angled to place the forelegs well under the body. Elbows are firm and tight, allowing for reach but not so loose to as to allow for elbowing out, nor so tight as to create toeing in or out. Legs are long, straight, and parallel, when viewed from all sides, set well under the body to allow a long stride. Pasterns are flexible, strong and straight, turning neither in nor out. Feet are harefeet, webbed, with well-arched toes. Thin soft pads, splayed feet or rounded feet are a serious fault. Toenails are to be dark on dark colored dogs, light on light colored dogs. Dewclaws may be removed. Hindquarters: The Xolo possesses moderate rear angulation, in balance with the forequarters. The bones of the first and second thigh are approximately equal in length, and the combined angle should place the front edge of the back paw directly under the rearmost point of the pelvis with the hock perpendicular. Legs are straight and well muscled. Stifle is moderately bent. Hocks are short, sturdy and straight, turning neither in nor out. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet are the same as the front feet. Coat: The principal characteristic of the hairless variety is the absence of hair, however a small amount of short, coarse hair is permitted on the top of the head, the feet, and the last third of the tail to the tip. The absence of hair in those areas is not to be penalized. Hair on any other areas is a serious fault. Hair may be any color. The skin is tough, protective, smooth and close fitting. Moderate head wrinkles are permitted but loose or wrinkled skin on the body is a fault. The coated variety is completely covered with a short, smooth, close fitting coat. Long, soft or wavy hair is a serious fault in either variety. Color: A dark, uniform color is preferred, ranging from black, gray black, slate, to red, liver or bronze, although white spots and markings are permitted. Gait: The movement is a free and effortless at a fast trot, with good reach and drive. Legs will converge towards a centerline of gravity as speed increases. Temperament: Typical Xolo temperament is calm, tranquil, aloof and attentive. Disqualifications: Xolos under ten or over 24 inches in height, measured at the highest point of the withers. Cropped ears.